Solving the mystery of the ancient 360-day calendar

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It appears that ancient 360-day calendars may have been used globally until about the eighth century BCE.  360dayyear.com, a leading internet source, has cataloged evidence of eleven different cultures that may have used 360-day calendars at one time or another.

This article is an investigation into the possible source and purpose of such a calendar.

The question that first pops in one’s mind is; how is it possible that eleven widely separated cultures came up with identical calendar systems?  The physical barriers such as mountains, deserts and oceans separating Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica and China would seem to preclude the merging of proprietary technologies. So, what happened?

It also seems unlikely that the 360-day calendar has anything to do with tracking seasons as it would have become out of sync by a full month in just 5-years. As a result, it would have been discarded. But the calendars were not discarded. In fact, they were widely used for a period of at least two-thousand years. That would suggest that the 360-day calendar was crafted to serve another purpose.

At least in some cases, such as with the Mayans and Egyptians, the 360-day calendars were an integral part of 365-day calendar systems. Intercalary periods were used for synchronization of the calendars over longer periods of time.

According to the Ancient History Encyclopedia the ancient Sumerians emerged as a culture around 5,000 BCE and lasted until about 1,750 BCE. Historically, what we call civilization, likely began in the ancient city of Eridu. As the oldest known civilization, it seemed reasonable to assume they were the first culture to embrace a 360-day calendar and so, they became the initial focus of this investigation.

The literature explained how their history and accomplishments had been lost in time–even their name. Their secrets remained buried in the deserts of Iraq until the 19th century AD, when French and British archaeologists finally stumbled upon Sumerian artifacts while hunting for evidence of the ancient Assyrians. Since then, archaeologists have recovered some 500,000 clay tablets, the majority of which are yet to be translated.

Sumerians1

By 3,100 BC the Sumerians had already become a highly advanced and sophisticated civilization. They had a writing system (cuneiform script) and a library containing hundreds of thousands of historical documents. They also had a highly functional governmental structure and legal system and were building bridges, dams, aqueducts and irrigation systems. Mathematically, it appears that their skills were well beyond what historians had imagined. The evidence suggest that they could perform advanced arithmetic calculations and may have been the initiators of the science that would later become known as astronomy. They brought us the Sexagesimal structure for measuring time–using seconds, minutes and hours as well as our system of measure–based of miles, feet and inches. They had mastered geometry and were able to calculate areas of rectangles, triangles and trapezoids and said to have used sophisticated geometrical calculations for tracking the movement of planets.

Unraveling the mystery

After working on the puzzle off and on for several years an original concept slowly began to evolve.

I learned that the Sumerians divided the 360-day year into 30-day months, the day into twelve 2-hour periods, and the 2-hour periods into thirty 4-minute intervals. With 1440-minutes in a day, 4-minutes is equivalent to 1/360th of a day. That piece of information told me that the Sumerians not only divided the Earth’s orbit into intervals of 360, they also divided Earth’s rotation into intervals of 360.

That lead to the discovery of what I now refer to as the “Sacred Cube”.

4-minutes X 360 = 1440-minutes (the measure of a day)
1440-minutes X 360 = 518,400 (the measure of a year)
518,400-minutes X 360 = 186,624,000 miles (the measure of distance)

 When 4-minutes is multiplied by 360 it results in 1440-minutes or 1-day. When those 1440-minutes are multiplied by 360-days it results in 518,400-minutes or one 360-day year. When 518,400-minutes are multiplied by 360 the result is 186,624,000 miles. Curiously, that number matches a value listed in the Cannon of ancient numbers which is defined as the Earth’s orbital diameter (93,312,000 X 2 = 186,624,000). More precisely, this figure is the line of apsides.

Being a bit uneasy about the implications of this, I decided to let the matter set.

A couple of years later I was trying to make sense out of the Sexagesimal system and came up with an idea. I decided to deconstruct the 186,624,000 number that I had previously came up with using the Sexagesimal time structure of a day. First, I divided 186,624,000-miles by 360-days which resulted in 518,400-miles per-day. That figure was then divided by 24-hours which resulted in 21,600-miles per-hour. Next, 21,600-miles was divided by 60-minutes which resulted in 360-miles per-minute. Finally, the 360-miles per-minute was divided by 60-seconds which resulted in 6-miles per-second or 6-hertz–the very same frequency insisted on by the great Nicola Tesla.

Tabel-of-Measures

To summarize what I’d learned up to that point;

  1. The cube of 360 X 4 equals 186,624,000-miles (theoretical diameter of Earth’s orbit).
  2. 186,624,000-miles is the product of a Sexagesimal year.

At this point and time, I was convinced that the Sumerians were the legitimate source of the 360-day calendar. But I was troubled by the size of discrepancy between 186,624,000-miles, the proposed diameter of Earth’s orbit, and the currently accepted value. So, once again I decided to let the matter set.

Several years later I came across a paper written by researcher Arnold D. Enge. He had discovered that the ancient Mayan used 365.625 days when calculating the Earth’s orbit instead of our 365.242-day tropical year. The Mayan name for the 365.625-day period is “uinalhaab” which means one-year. The “uinalhaab” turned out to be the missing piece of my puzzle.

Here are the numbers in table format:

Sol-Lunar Year

A lunar-year of 354.375-days is consistent with the present-day Islamic calendar which has been in use since ancient times. The 365.625-day “uinalhaab” has now been verified by other qualified authorities. The average of those two periods is precisely 360-days.

At that point I supposed that ancient astronomers had, somehow, developed a calendar to track the apsidal motion of an Earth-Moon binary system.

Verification

To verify that supposition I decided to utilize the time-distance formula that I had learned earlier (4-minutes X 360 X 360 = 518,400). But, instead of multiplying 518,400 by 360 as I had done earlier, I multiplied that figure instead by the number of days in the lunar year and the number of days in the uinalhaab (see below).

The table shows that the orbit’s closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) is 91,854,000 miles and that the farthest approach (aphelion) is 94,770,000-miles. The sum of those two (186,624,000-miles) forms the line of apsides. The preciseness of the calculation was enough to convince me that the 360-day calendar was defined by an Earth-Moon binary system (see below).

The above illustration depicts the orbit of the Earth-Moon system as an ellipse instead of an circle. The important difference between circular orbits and elliptic orbits is the construction of their orbital diameters. When circular orbits are divided by Pi the result is the length of their orbital diameter (which is precisely two times its radius). With an ellipse, however, the orbital diameter is replaced with the “line of apsides”.

The line of apsides is composed of two axes of differing lengths. One axis is the distance from the center of rotation to the orbit’s aphelion and the other axes is the distance from the center of rotation to the orbit’s parhelion. According to Newton, those two components cause two opposing fields or waves to be created (see below).

Apsidal Motion

 

The variance in length of the two axies is what defines the synodic period (the number of rotations necessary to evenly distribute the variance and return to the point of equilibrium). Newton’s theorem of revolving orbits describes this phenomenon as apsidal or orbital precession.

The formula for calculating the apsidal precession period is as follows:

The number of days shown in red in the formula below are taken from the table above identified as the “Apsidal Precession Component Profile”.

[-360 / ((360/182.8125 days) – (360/177.1875 days)) = 5758.59375 days]

What the formula tells us is that it takes 5758.59375 days for the Earth-Moon system to evenly distribute the variance in length of the perihelion and aphelion axes and return to a point of orbital equilibrium–a period of almost exactly 16 solunar years.

Further Synodic implications

Interestingly, the synodic components from which the 360-day period is formed are periods that the ancients defined as months.

[-360 / ((360/30-days) – (360/27.69230769-days)) = 360-days]

The formula tells us that 360-days is comprised of twelve 30-day periods and thirteen 27.69230769-day periods. The mean is 28.8-days (see table).

Earth-Synodic

The following diagram shows an outer orbital perimeter in red resulting from 365.625 X 518,400 and an inner orbital perimeter in blue resulting from 354.375 X 518,400. The mean solunar orbit of 360-days is white in color. The white dotted line illustrates the lunar motion that produces the 27.69230769-day oscillations.

Solunar-Cycle

Solunar-360-year

The implication of all of this is considerable 

For example, 27.6923076923 X 260 = 7,200-days or 20 solunar years (Mayan Katun) and 30 X 360 = 10,800-days or 30-solunar years (Saturn orbital period).

The katun (consisting of 7,200-days) is based on the synodic relationship between the mean orbit period of Saturn (10,800-days) and the theoretical mean rotation period of the solar system’s center of mass (4,320-days) which is very closely associated with the orbit of planet Jupiter (see below).

Synodic [-360 / ((360/10,800 days) – (360/4320 days)) = 7200 days]

The katun is also closely linked to Jupiter’s relationship with the Earth-Moon system. The Earth-Moon system’s synodic period with Jupiter is about 400-days. When those 400-days are inserted into the formula below the Katun pops up.

Synodic [-360 / ((360/400 days) – (360/360 days)) = 3600 days X 2 = 7,200-days]

Another extremely important implication is the synodic relationship between the 354.375-day period and 365.625-day period:

Synodic [-360 / ((360/365.625 days) – (360/354.375 days)) = 3,986.71875 days]

Why this calculation is so important is because 3,986.71875 divided by 360-days turns out to be 11.07421875-years (the mean length of the sunspot cycle).

Further implications

When the synodic period between 365.625-days and 360-days is calculated, the result is as follows:

 Synodic [-360 / ((360/365.625 days) – (360/360 days)) = 23,400 days]

Now, by dividing 23,400 by 360-days we come up with 65-solunar years

EMS

Why is 23,400-days or 65 solunar years important?

Simply put, it is the grand synodic period of the inner solar system:

  • Earth-Mars synodic period is 780-days X 30 = 23,400
  • Earth-Venus synodic period is 585-days X 40 = 23,400
  • Uinalhaab orbital: 365.625-days X 364 = 23,400
  • Solunar orbital: 360 X 65-days = 23,400
  • Lunar orbital: 354.5454: 66 X 360 = 23,400
  • Venus orbital: 225 X 104 = 23,400
  • Mercury orbital: 87.96992481 X 266 = 23,400

All the above orbitals divide evenly into the grand synodic period (no remainders). This implies that all inner planets are in perfect harmonic resonance with a cycle of 23,400-days.

Harmonic resonance is simply natures method of propagating energy

This concludes this post. Thank you for taking the time to read it.

Sincerely,

Ron Messick

More to follow…

 

Energy, Frequency and Vibration

The late great Nikola Tesla—the Serbian-American inventor and electrical engineer–best known for discovering alternating electric current and lighting up our world was quoted as saying:

If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.”

― Nikola Tesla

What Tesla is referring to are the properties of energy and their associated behaviors.

To understand energy and associated behaviors it is first necessary to understand the meaning of the term’s vibration, frequency and resonance.

Physicist tells us that at the atomic and sub-atomic level everything is in motion and wherever there is motion there is vibration. In other words, everything in the universe is in a constant state of vibration.

Vibration is typically described as a periodic or cyclic motion between two extremes around a mid-point. What this seems to imply is that all motion is circular which is not totally accurate because, according to Kepler, there are no perfectly round circles in space–only ellipses of varying eccentricities.

The important difference between circular orbits and elliptic orbits is the construction of their orbital diameters. When circular orbits are divided by Pi the result is the length of their orbital diameters (which is precisely two times the orbit’s radius). With an ellipse, however, the orbital diameter is replaced with the line of apsides (below).

The line of apsides is composed of two axes of differing lengths. One axis is the distance from the center of rotation to the orbit’s aphelion and the other axes is the distance from the center of rotation to the orbit’s parhelion. Those two components cause two opposing fields or waves to be created (see below). The variance in length of the two axies is what defines the synodic period (the number of rotations necessary to evenly distribute the variance and return to the point of equilibrium). Newton’s theorem of revolving orbits describes this phenomenon as apsidal or orbital precession.

Rotation generated sinewaves

Fast, Slow and Mean 

The above simulation shows how the shorter axis generates a smaller circle rotating closer to the center of rotation at a higher rate of velocity. As this faster rotating wave begins to overtake the slower wave the physical distance between the waves contract. Once the faster wave passes the slower wave, the physical distance between the waves expand. This expansion and contraction create a pattern of vibrational frequency between the two components. Frequency is the number of oscillations (or cycles) occurring in a period of one-second.

The orbital frequency of planets is measured in the number of kilometers (or miles) traveled per-second. Saturn, for example, orbits at 6-miles per-second.

The chart below illustrates how the 360-degrees associated with circles or cycles are carried forward to the waveform created by the spiraling motion and serves to identify extreme points reached by the wave (90-270) as well as its mid-point (180 degrees). The scale on the left-hand side is divided into opposite polarities (+ /- values) which measures the wave’s strength (amplitude) as it progresses.

Everything that vibrates resonates at a frequency based on the configuration of energy that holds the matter together.

A tuning fork is a good example of the precise configuration of matter to achieve a specific sound. A wind chime is also an example of the same material, at different lengths, each having its own unique fundamental frequency and sound. Orbiting planets also have their own unique fundamental frequencies.

Harmonics are simply multiples of a fundamental frequency. The examples below show the wave patterns of progressively higher harmonic frequencies.

The frequencies of the sinewaves in the above illustration represent the “synodic mean” of the two opposing waveforms that are generated by an ellipse in motion.

Newton’s 3rd. Law of Motion:

” To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction”.

His theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to explain the concept of apsidal precession; i.e. (the synodic interaction of two opposing particles). Both are influenced by two opposing forces–gravity and magnetic radiation. As one component falls under the influence of one force, the other component falls under the influence of the other force. The result is dual curvature.

Both gravitation and radiation have their own systems of curvature and each is opposed to the other for their purposes are directly opposed.

The curvature of gravitation, for example, is centripetal and is controlled by the north-south magnetic poles. Its purpose is to extend bodies in motion from their wave axes to their wave amplitudes. The curvature of radiation, on the other hand, is centrifugal and controlled by the east-west equatorial axes.

Between those two opposing forces or waves is a plane of zero curvature which bounds the wave fields and insulates the effect of one wave from the other based on the principle of opposing polarities (below).

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Gravitation and radiation (magnetic) fields are generated as apsidal precession gradually rotates the line joining the apsides of an ellipse.

In the following set of examples, the ellipse shape defined as Kepler (A) marks the point of equilibrium. As the orbit progresses Kepler (A) opens into what appears to be two ellipses as shown in Kepler (B). As the orbiting continues the line of apsides appears to shrink–forming a cavity resembling the shape of a Vesica-Pisces (Kepler (C)). Naturally, the lines presented in these examples are invisible fields of force like the atmospheric bubble surrounding Earth. We can’t see it, but we know it’s there.

Orbital precession works like the winding of a clock; the spring is wound centripetally (transferring energy potential to the spring). Then, the process reverses and centrifugal motion turns the potential energy into kinetic energy as the spring unwinds. The number of times that a clock winds and unwinds is governed synodically.

Apsidal Motion

Physicist tell us “that Atomic particles, in free form; i.e. (not bound into an atom) carry an electric charge and, when those charged particles are put into motion, an electric current flow produces a force field around itself as it flows.” Force fields manifest themselves in sine-waves as a result of sympathetic vibrations taking place within apsidal cavities (see regions A & B below).

Trapped charge is contained in apsidal cavities by the polarity differential of the two opposing fields. In the above example, free charge is trapped between line-1 and base-0 (the line of apsides which has zero curvature). And because like charges repel, all movements towards line-1 are repelled back towards base-0, which are then repelled back towards line-1 and so on and so on. The resulting vibrational frequencies shown as green lines are based on the fluctuating distance between line-1 and base-0 and its opposite, line-2 and base-0.

As the cycle progresses the charge; i.e. (green vertical lines) is compressed into a smaller and smaller area as the distance between Line-1 and base-0 contracts. That causes faster and faster vibrations at higher and higher frequencies. At the moment of convergence both regions disappear and, then, reappear as regions of the opposite polarity.

Where do the trapped charges go?

The faster and faster vibrations generated during the convergence phase can cause a, theoretically, infinite rise in frequency. The point of convergence is the “Omega Point” of greatest energetic intensity–where mathematical singularities are thought to form in energy fields—releasing a sudden burst of current across the point of convergence and allowing the trapped charge to flow to the other side.

What is being described here is a process where low potential accumulates into high potential by generating high amperage of low voltage pressure into low amperage of high voltage pressure. This is all that Nature does to perform work, whether to create a storm or a solar system.

Apsidal Precession

Apsidal precession exists at every scale. Planets, suns, solar systems, electrons, protons and atomic systems are the familiar results of this force which gathers energy into smaller volumes of dense masses. “All that is required is an ellipse in motion“.

The term, apsidal precession, is familiar to astronomers. But, because of the relatively small eccentricities in planetary orbits, Newton’s theorem of revolving orbits is basically ignored. Doing so, however, may be of no small consequence. Planet Earth, for example, has an apsidal precession period of about 14.95-years. That produces a wave structure with 4-maximum amplitude peaks or 1-maximum amplitude peak every 3.7375 years which is suspiciously close to the El Niño-La Niña effect.

The next post in this series is “The Solar System & How It Works”.

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Younger-Dryas Period–Mystery Solved?

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Starting in about 13,000 (BCE) the Earth experienced three major climatic catastrophes–one after another; i.e. (Bölling-Allerød, Younger-Dryas and Pre-boreal warming periods). They are described here as catastrophic because that 1-2-3 punch is said to have annihilated a significant percentage of life on Earth.

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  • The Bölling-Allerød interstadial was a sudden, intense, climatic warming (~12° C; ~21° F) period which caused dramatic melting of large Ice Age ice sheets that covered Canada and the northern U.S., all of Scandinavia, and much of northern Europe and Russia. Sea level that had been 120 m (~400 ft) lower than present rose quickly and submerged large areas that had been dry land during the Ice Age. This warming occurred abruptly in only a few years (Steffensen et al., 2008). This warm period ran from c. 12,800 to c. 10,900 (BCE). It ended abruptly with the onset of the Younger Dryas.
  • The Younger-Dryas was a cold period that reduced temperatures back to near-glacial levels within a decade. It began about 10,900 (BCE) when global temperatures plunged sharply (~8°C; ~14° F), sparking a 1200-year period of glacial re-advance. Its end came abruptly with the onset of Pre-boreal warming about 9,700 (BCE).
  • Pre-boreal warming began about 9,700 (BCE) when, almost overnight, global temperatures rose parabolically (~12° C; ~21° F), marking the end of the Younger Dryas cold period and the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age. The peak rise in temperatures was reached about 9,500 (BCE) 
    

There has been an abundance of speculation as to the cause of these events (even a book or two) but no one has offered an explanation that ties all three events together. This article argues that all three events may have a physical cause and, if so, their timing may be predictable. The supposition is presented in a logical, well laid-out, manner and is supplemented with ample charts and diagrams. The analysis begins by identifying the underlying motion that is believed to cause the precession of the equinoxes and then introduces a series of harmonic structures that may provide an answer for the abrupt shifts in temperatures occurring between 13,000- and 9,500 BCE (video).

The precession of the equinoxes is the observable phenomena of the rotation of the heavens around the Earth–a cycle that is said to span a period of (approximately) 25,920 years (Platonic year).

The cause of the precession of the equinoxes remains a hotly debated topic. At the heart of the debate is the source of the underlying motion that cause the equinoxes to precess. I believe that motion is a cycle of 80-years and that apsidal precession is the phenomena that produces the 25,920-year precession cycle.

Apsidal or orbital precession is the gradual rotation of the line joining the apsides of an elliptic orbit which are the points of its closest and farthest approach. For the 80-year cycle, the closest point to its center of rotation is “A” (79.753846153-years). The farthest point is “B” (80.24767802-years). Therefore, a mean orbital period of 80-years.

Apsidal Motion

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Apsidal motion is like the winding of a clock; the spring is wound by synodic interaction of its two components. Therefore, the spring winds 162.5 turns in one direction (high-potential) and then, unwinds for another 161.5 turns in the other direction (low-potential). The combined synodic motion of 324 turns or orbits is the foot print of the Platonic-year; i.e. (25,920-years), a period commonly associated with precession.

Ancient Mayan Creation Cycles–The Connection

The ancient Maya called themselves the children of the Sun with the Moon being the mother and the Sun the father. They are widely acknowledged as gifted astronomers and were without equal when it came to calendar making. But, rather than using just one calendar, as we do today, the Maya used several calendars—simultaneously—which were all magically integrated into one grand timekeeping system.

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Ancient Mayan Integrated Timekeeping System

Their timekeeping system was mechanical in nature and consisted of four intermeshing gears (like what you would find in a pocket watch) and, as the primary calendar is advanced by one day, the others updated themselves proportionately. They were not so much interested in time–their primary focus was timing.

For each of the calendars they built a mathematical model in the form of a stone pyramid which was impervious to the passing of time and able to withstand the cataclysmic forces of nature… the only way of insuring the long-term survival of their sacred technologies.

Mayan cycles are all harmonic derivative’s of the Pleiades cycle which consists of 26,000-tuns (360-day years). Interestingly, the 26,000-tun cycle is also the approximate period of the precession of the equinoxes. Therefore, from the Pleiadean perspective, the Sun would appear to make one full revolution around Alcyone (the central star of the Pleiades group) every 26,000-tuns or 9,360,000-days.

The following illustration shows the two primary intervals of time that makeup the Pleiades cycle. 1. 26,000 /4 = 6,500 Mayan years and 2. 26,000 /5 = 5,200 Mayan years or the 4th and 5th harmonics. The 6,500 year periods define the galactic alignment. The 5,200 year periods are said to be cycles of creation. Naturally, creation implies an ending.

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On close inspection of the 26,000 year cycle you’ll see that the cycle oscillates back and forth between 26,000 and 25,840 years with a mean of 25,920 Mayan years (below).

Mayan-Harmonics

Therefore, the simulation values used in our mathematical model are 6,480 and 5,184 instead of 6,500 and 5,200. Before a simulation of the interactions between the two cycles can be run, however, a start date or end date for the cycles is required. And, there’s only one date that Mayan scholars generally agree on and that is -3112 or -3113 BCE. So, the date chosen for the model was -3/21/3112 BCE. By simply adding 5,184 the calculated end date is 2,072 AD.

The chart below shows the simulated interactions of vibrational frequency  patterns created by the two cycles over a period of 16,000-years–ending in 2072 AD. For context, the results of the calculations are overlaid with Ice-Core temperature data for the same period of time. The apparent correlations between the two cycles and abrupt changes in temperature, such as occurred during the Bölling-Allerød, Younger-Dryas and Pre-boreal periods are striking.

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As you can see in the close-up below, the chart leaves little room for doubt that the two cycles are somehow linked to abrupt climate shifts (red dotted lines).

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Apparent Correlations

Temperature turning-points appear to correlate with wave amplitudes of +100% or -100% or 0% and, when the waves cross each other’s path. The data has not been manipulated in any way. The cycle components are simply responding to a common ending date of 2072 AD. The sinewave calculations simply work backwards from that point.

How did they know?